In the reflection version the players receive reflection prompts that aim to trigger self explanations (specific declarative knowledge on proportional reasoning as well as procedural information). The reflection prompts are menu-based and structured which means that players can select their answer from a list of options, and the options are matched to the prompt. In this way cognitive demands are lowered which may support below-average players. The assumption is that the reflection prompts will affect learning, and that the procedural information can help the players to structure and represent their explanations.


The prompt by the non-playing character


Menu-based and structured reflection

Play the Reflection version

ter Vrugte, J., de Jong, T., Wouters, P., Vandercruysse, S., Elen, J. & van Oostendorp, H. (2015). When a game supports prevocational math education but integrated reflection does not. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 31: 462–480. doi: 10.1111/jcal.12104